The Struggle of Torey in Shaping of Minor character Personality In the novel of Sheila: The tiger??™s child by Torey Hayden
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the research
B. Identification of the research
C. Scope of the research
D. Objective of the research
E. Method of the research
F. Review of previous studies
G. Theoretical framework
CHAPTER 2: PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS
CHAPTER 3: THE STRUGGLE OF TOREY IN SHAPING OF MINOR CHARACTER PERSONALITY
3.1. The background of Sheila
3.2. The problem that is found during of Torey??™s struggle to shaping Sheila personality
A. The background of the research
Psychological approach originated in the work of Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, who proposed the technique of psychoanalysis. Generally, psychology deals with behavior and mental process which are found in every human. Psychoanalysis itself has a purpose to cure of mental disorder. Commonly personality told in the definition that what makes one personality difference with the other personality and what makes it unique than other. This personality called by individual differences.
Theory of personality substantively is a soul psychology that later will be a gist of psychology that explain about soul or personality of human.
The mental process can be the main factor in developing human personality and behaviors.
Sheila: The tiger??™s child is a novel which written by Torey Hayden in 2005. This novel tells about a teacher that tries to help a girl that gets the bad treatment when she was child by her mother and also by her father. This bad treatment makes Sheila become has bad psychological when she growth up and Torey as her teacher try to help her but the bad experience and anxious experience makes Sheila can not remember the event that happened her when she was child. This situation makes Torey difficult to help her because Sheila does not want to remember the situation when she was child.
The novel Sheila: the tiger??™s child by Torey Hayden is one of an interesting novel which concerns in shaping of humans personality. Torey Hayden was born in Livingston, Montana, United state on 21rd May 1951 with a full name of Victoria Lynn. She was an English novelist and also psychiatry in some school for mental disorders children. She gets degree of Bachelor of Arts but she more interested work in handling the children that gets mental disorders which is need a helping hand in shaping their personality. This interested brings her wants to dig up about special education about children that gets mental disorders and have to shape their personality in order to get a good life in the future and forget about their anxious.
In all of her work she almost publishes her books about children that get the mental disorders. One of those books is Sheila: the tiger??™s child that is true story or it can be called that this novel Torey experience.
The writer is interested to discuss this novel for some reasons. The first reason is this novel is true story of the author experience itself. Commonly, the literary works that a talk about true story or author experience is almost relates to the psychological. Because based on Endraswara??™s book proposed three assumptions and one of them is told that:
???seberapa jauh pengarang mampu menggambarkan perwatakan tokoh sehingga karya menjadi semakin hidup. Sentuhan-sentuhan emosi melalui dialog atau pun pemilihan kata, sebenarnya merupakan gambaran kekuatan dan kejernihan batin pencipta.???(96)
So it clears and proves that this novel is true story of an author experiences itself. The second reason is because of this novel is true story so the characters on this novel are the real characters that live at the time such as Sheila, Chad, Jeff, Miriam, Torey itself, and many others. The last reason is because after reading this novel wholly the writer finds out that this novel is new novel so there are no people analyzed before about this novel.
Furthermore, the writer wants to analyze the struggle of Torey in changing of Sheila??™s personality to be a good personality and gets the refusal of Sheila because Sheila has a bad experience that makes her has bad disturbance psychology caused by her background that has bad family and sometimes get the bad behavior from her father and her mother when she was a child.
Based on the explanation above, the writer wants to analyze this novel by applying psychoanalytic criticism and entitles ???the struggle of Torey in shaping of minor Personality in the novel of Sheila: The Tiger??™s Child???
B. Identification of the problem
In this research the writer wants to analyze the struggle of Torey Hayden in shaping of Sheila??™s personality as seen on Torey??™s novel Sheila: the tiger??™s child. Torey Hayden is the main character in the novel Sheila by Torey Hayden. She is a psychiatrist in one of clinic in America. In this clinic Torey helps some of children that have a psyche problem. But among these her students there is a girl that has a close relation with her. In this close relationship Torey try with all of her the best to change of Sheila personality into a good personality. Through this endeavor Torey facing some of the problem from Sheila. Especially when Sheila can not remember the situation when she gets bad treatment by her mother and thinks that the woman is Torey that was treat her. This research focuses on the self defense of Torey proposed by Sigmund Freud.
C. Scope of the research
In this paper the writer will focuses on the struggle of Torey in shaping of Sheila??™s personality. The writer will employs two questions to limit the analysis as the follows:
1. What are the causes of the psychological problems of Sheila
2. Torey??™s effort to cure Sheila??™s mental problem
D. Objective of the research
Through this research the writer wants to analyze the struggle of Torey Hayden in shaping of Sheila??™s personality. To see this struggle the writer will apply the psychoanalytic criticism proposed by Sigmund Freud.
E. Method of the research
In completing the research the writer follows two steps as follow:
1. Collecting data
In this collecting data is almost in library research. Library research here means that read all books that relates to the topic and divided them into two first is primary data and second is secondary data. In primary data the writer decides to choose the novel of Sheila: the tiger??™s child itself as the primary data and the secondary data which is book that relate to the topic.
2. Analyzing data
In this research needs some quotation that will complete the research. So in this step the referential from other book which is need to complete the research.
3. Presenting the result of analysis
In presenting of analysis the writer applies descriptive method. Then this descriptive method is arranged become a good phrase, sentence and paragraph and then all this step will shape in form of thesis.
F. Review of the research
In doing this research needs some references to complete the research. The writer in her research tries to search any references or books that relates to this novel but because of this novel is new so there is no students that have analyze this novel.
So, after conducting any books that relate to this novel in library research, the writer has not found any students in Faculty of Letters, Andalas University who ever analyze such the novel of Sheila: the lost memory by Torey Hayden. But the writer finds some students that also use the psychoanalytic criticism by Sigmund Freud in their thesis. The first student is Dwi ananda putrid(03), the title of her thesis is ???Henry Fleming??™s personality Development in Stephen Crane??™s The Red Badge Of Courage.??? In her thesis, she explains about the psychological conflict that faced by Henry Fleming in the civil war. This conflict influences Henry??™s personality. The second thesis is by Destri Zulaika (00), the title of her thesis is ???the impact of super ego on Esther??™s personality as seen in Sylvia Plath??™s The Bell Jar???. In her thesis, she concludes that Esther as the central character in that novel cannot balance her needs and the norms, which exist around her. Then the third is written by Masril with the title Psychological problem development as reflected through Joseph Conrad??™s novelette. He emphasizes his analysis on psychological problem that appear in the mind character as an effect of his effort to achieve self-edification.
In other hand, for this analysis, the writer focus on the struggle of Torey Hayden to change Sheila??™s personality as seen on Torey??™s novel Sheila: the tiger??™s child.
G. Theoretical frameworks
In this research the writer analyze the struggle of Torey in shaping of the second character in the novel Sheila: the tiger??™s child by Torey Hayden. Based on Abram there are four perspectives that he proposed; they are objective, mimetic, expressive and pragmatic. Through these perspectives the writer applies of the objective. The reason why the writer apply the objective because in her analysis is only focuses on the literary work itself. So it clears that objective is analyze a play only focuses on the literary work itself without any addition from other source. Then the writer applies the psychological theory which is proposed by Sigmund Freud in analyzing the novel itself the writer uses the self defense mechanism especially is repression. Link with this idea, according to Barry??™s book Beginning Theory said that repression is the forgetting or ignoring or unsolved conflicts, unadmitted desires or traumatic past events, so that they are forced out of conscious awareness and into the realm of the unconscious.
The writer choose the repression in analyzing of her novel because the writer found that the second character get bad treatment from her mother and her father when she was child and makes her really scared and closed herself from other people. So, when she grows up makes her difficult to remember what was she happened when she was a child because of her anxious.
As we have told before in analyzing the novel Sheila by Torey Hayden, the writer uses psychoanalytic theory that is proposed by Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, was an Austrian Neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind.
In psychoanalytic said that literature as a reflection psychological and as an activity of psychological. Basically, psychological approach of literature will be supported by three approaches in literary work. in Endraswara??™s metodologi penelitian sastra, Roekhan states that:
Pada dasarnya psikologi sastra akan ditopang oleh tiga pendekatan sekaligus. Pertama, pendekatan textual, yang mengkaji aspek psikologis tokoh dalam karya sastra. Kedua, pendekatan reseptif-pragmatik, yang mengkaji aspek psikologis pembaca sebagai penikmat karya sastra yang terbentuk dari pengaruh karya yang dibacanya, serta proses resepsi pembaca dalam menikmati karya sastra. Ketiga, pendekatan ekspresif, yang mengkaji aspek psikologis sang penulis ketika melakukan proses kreatif yang terproyeksi lewat karyanya, baik penulis sebagai pribadi maupun wakil masyarakatnya.(97-98)
In this research the writer will use the textual approach that focuses on the psychological aspect of the character in literary works.
Then also Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: ???the id, the ego, and the superego.??? (teori kepribadian: Sigmund freud)
Id is a desire that have by human. Desire here means that all thinks about enjoyment that has to fulfill. The example of this id is we as a human if we get hungry will hunt the food to eat. But if we did not get some food to eat our emotional will onto to high emotional and will be easy to angry.
Then ego, ego is based on reality principle. Reality principle here means that ego kind of system that organize the id, ego is kind of think in our mind that will be think and consider the existing of the id want is, or represents the id based on the reality. When the id lead of the human mind the ego as a reality principle will consider the existing of something and think that is this can be found in real life. So Ego is both of conscious and unconscious and functions as the thinking or deciding system. Then ???the ego understands about limitations and about strategies for overcoming limitations??? (http://www.nndb.com/people/736/000029649/)
The last one is super ego. Super ego working in our mind based on the moral principle. Morality here means that the super ego is a system that tells an individual what he may do or not. Super ego divided into two first is conscience and second is ego ideal. Based on the internet source said that ???The superego is the internalized sense of right and wrong, the conscience??? (http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/ig/Sigmund-Freud) the superego is very outward focused, with its priorities driven in large part by the needs of others: one??™s parents, teachers, the community. So it can be conclude that id is inward focuses and consider by ego through his reality and principle then super ego is outward focuses that run by morality principle and influenced by sociality or community.
Based on Zaviera??™s book Teori Kepribadian Sigmund Freud said that psychology is the science that studies behavior and mental process. The mental process relates to the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. in Zaviera??™s book Teori Kepribadian Sigmund Freud divides three psychic zones they are id, ego and super ego.
Id bekerja sejalan dengan prinsip-prinsip kenikmatan, yang bisa dipahami sebagai dorongan untuk selalu memenuhi kebutuhan dengan serta merta. Tidak seperti halnya id, ego berfungsi berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip realitas. Artinya ego memenuhi kebutuhan organisme berdasarkan objek-objek yang sesuai dan dapat ditemukan dalam kenyataan . super ego memiliki dua sisi: pertama adalah nurani yang merupakan internalisasi dari hukuman dan peringatan. Sementara yang kedua disebut ego ideal. Ago ideal berasal dari pujian dan contoh-contoh positif yang diberikan kepada anak-anak.(93-95)
Based on the quotation above it clears that id is pleasure principle. Then Ego is dominated by reality principle. Ego both of conscious and unconscious and functions as the thinking or deciding system. Super ego dominated by morality principle. The super ego is a system that tells an individual what he may do or not.